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John M. Carroll

John M. Carroll is a professor in the School of Information Sciences and Technology at Penn State University, University Park, PA. He has been elected into the CHI Academy by The Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (ACM SIGCHI) in recognition of his outstanding leadership and service in the field of computer-human interaction.

Titles by This Author

Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction

Interfacing Thought consolidates and presents theoretically important cognitive science research in the new and intensely active domain of human-computer interaction. It is a valuable survey of the whole range of problems and tasks in this growing field.

The twelve essays focus on the design of "user interfaces," or computers as experienced and manipulated by human users, showing how human motivation, action, and experience place constraints on the usability of computer equipment. In confronting the challenge of developing an applied science of human-computer interaction grounded in the framework of cognitive science, the essays make basic contributions to the development of cognitive science itself.

John M. Carroll is Manager of Advisory Interfaces at IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center. He is coeditor, with Thomas G. Bever and Lance A. Miller, of Talking Minds: The Study of Language in the Cognitive Sciences, an MIT Press paperback. A Bradford Book.

Scenario-Based Design of Human-Computer Interactions

Difficult to learn and awkward to use, today's information systems often change our activities in ways that we do not need or want. The problem lies in the software development process. In this book John Carroll shows how a pervasive but underused element of design practice, the scenario, can transform information systems design.Traditional textbook approaches manage the complexity of the design process via abstraction, treating design problems as if they were composites of puzzles. Scenario-based design uses concretization. A scenario is a concrete story about use. For example: "A person turned on a computer; the screen displayed a button labeled Start; the person used the mouse to select the button." Scenarios are a vocabulary for coordinating the central tasks of system development--understanding people's needs, envisioning new activities and technologies, designing effective systems and software, and drawing general lessons from systems as they are developed and used. Instead of designing software by listing requirements, functions, and code modules, the designer focuses first on the activities that need to be supported and then allows descriptions of those activities to drive everything else.In addition to a comprehensive discussion of the principles of scenario-based design, the book includes in-depth examples of its application.

Designing Minimalist Instruction for Practical Computer Skill

How do people acquire beginning competence at using new technology? The legendary Funnel of Nurnberg was said to make people wise very quickly when the right knowledge was poured in; it is an approach that designers continue to apply in trying to make instruction more efficient. This book describes a quite different instructional paradigm that uses what learners do spontaneously to find meaning in the activities of learning. It presents the "minimalist" approach to instructional design - its origins in the study of people's learning problems with computer systems, its foundations in the psychology of learning and problem solving, and its application in a variety of case studies.Carroll demonstrates that the minimalist approach outperforms the standard "systems approach" in every relevant way - the learner, not the system determines the model and the methods of instruction. It supports the rapid achievement of realistic projects right from the start of training, instead of relying on drill and practice techniques, and designing for error recognition and recovery as basic instructional events, instead of seeing error as failure. The book's many examples - including a brief discussion of recent commercial applications - will help researchers and practitioners apply and develop this new instructional technology.John M. Carroll has participated for a number of years as a leader in the interdisciplinary field of human-computer interactions. He is Manager of User Interface Theory and Design at IBM's Watson Research Center. The Nurnberg Funnel inaugurates the Technical Communications series, edited by Ed Barrett.

Titles by This Editor

Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction

Interfacing Thought consolidates and presents theoretically important cognitive science research in the new and intensely active domain of human-computer interaction. It is a valuable survey of the whole range of problems and tasks in this growing field.

The twelve essays focus on the design of "user interfaces," or computers as experienced and manipulated by human users, showing how human motivation, action, and experience place constraints on the usability of computer equipment. In confronting the challenge of developing an applied science of human-computer interaction grounded in the framework of cognitive science, the essays make basic contributions to the development of cognitive science itself.

John M. Carroll is Manager of Advisory Interfaces at IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center. He is coeditor, with Thomas G. Bever and Lance A. Miller, of Talking Minds: The Study of Language in the Cognitive Sciences, an MIT Press paperback. A Bradford Book.

Edited by John M. Carroll

Minimalism is an action- and task-oriented approach to instruction and documentation that emphasizes the importance of realistic activities and experiences for effective learning and information seeking. Since 1990, when the approach was defined in John Carroll's The Nurnberg Funnel, much work has been done to apply, refine, and broaden the minimalist approach to technical communication. This volume presents fourteen major contributions to the current theory and practice of minimalism.Contributors evaluate the development of minimalism up to now, analyze the acceptance of minimalism by the mainstream technical communications community, report on specific innovations and investigations, and discuss future challenges and directions. The book also includes an appendix containing a bibliography of published research and development work on minimalism since 1990.

Contributors : Tricia Anson, R. John Brockmann, John M. Carroll, Steve Draper, David K. Farkas, JoAnn T. Hackos, Robert R. Johnson, Greg Kearsley, Barbara Mirel, Janice (Ginny) Redish, Stephanie Rosenbaum, Karl L. Smart, Hans van der Meij.Published in association with the Society for Technical Communication.

The Study of Language in the Cognitive Sciences

These essays by some of the most prominent figures in linguistics, artificial intelligence, and psychology explore the problems involved in creating a general cognitive science that will treat language, thought, and behavior in an integrated fashion. They address the fundamental questions of the relations between linguistic structures and cognitive processes, between cognitive processes and language behavior, and between language behavior and linguistic structure.

Contents: Introduction, Thomas G. Bever (Columbia University), John M. Carroll and Lance A. Miller (IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center). Philosophy and Linguistics: An Outline of Platonist Grammar, Jerrold J. Katz (CUNY). Sense and Reference in a Psychologically Based Semantics, Ray Jackendoff (Brandeis University). Some Thoughts on the Boundaries and Components of Linguistics, Charles J. Fillmore (University of California, Berkeley). Psychology: Approaches to the Study of the Psychology of Language, Walter Kintsch (University of Colorado). Toward An Abstract Performance Grammar, Charles E. Osgood (University of Illinois). Upgrading a Mind, David Premack (University of Pennsylvania). Computational Models: Memory, Meaning, and Syntax, Roger Schank (Yale University) and Lawrence Birnbaum (Yale University). Some Inadequate Theories of Human Language Processing, Mitchell P. Marcus (AT&T Bell Laboratories).