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Mark J. Stefik

Mark Stefik in an inventor and Research Fellow at the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), where he directs the Information Sciences and Technologies Laboratory.

Titles by This Author

Stories and Strategies of Radical Innovation

Since the late 1990s, technology markets have declined dramatically. Responding to the changing business climate, companies use strategies of open innovation: acquiring technologies from outside, marketing their technologies to other companies, and outsourcing manufacturing. But open innovation is not enough; it is mainly a way to run a business to its endgame. By itself, open innovation results in razor-thin profits from products that compete as commodities. Businesses also need a path to renewal. No one ever achieved a breakthrough with open innovation.

Our capacity for creating breakthroughs depends on a combination of science, imagination, and business; the next great waves of innovation will come from organizations that get this combination right. During periods of rapid economic growth, companies and investors focus on the short term and forget where breakthroughs come from. Without appropriate engagement and reinvestment, the innovation ecology breaks down. Today, universities, technology companies, government funding agencies, venture capitalists, and corporate research laboratories need to foster the conditions in which breakthroughs arise.

In Breakthrough, Mark and Barbara Stefik show us how innovation works. Drawing on stories from repeat inventors and managers of technology, they uncover the best practices for inventing the future. This book is for readers who want to know how inventors do their work, how people become inventors, and how businesses can create powerful cultures of innovation.

Social, Technical, and Legal Challenges for A Networked World

Sometimes when we face change, we feel conflicting forces driving us forward and pulling us back. This place of tension and confusion can be called an "edge." The "Internet edge" is our collective struggle to change as the world becomes more connected. Turmoil at the Internet edge occurs around interacting social, legal, and technological realms. Examples include issues of online privacy, censorship, digital copyright, and untaxed business competition over the Net. Such issues reflect conflicts between values—local and global, individual and corporate, democratic and nondemocratic.

This book is an eagle's eye view of the Internet edge. It is about the experiences of those who encountered similar issues as they built precursors to the Net such as videotext, teletext, and the Source. It is about the trends in technology that will make the Net of the next few years a very different experience from the desktop surfing of today.

Finally, it is about how old myths of magic, power, and control can help us to understand our fascination with and fear of new technologies.

Titles by This Editor

Archetypes, Myths, and Metaphors
Edited by Mark J. Stefik

The "information superhighway" is a metaphor oft used to describe the internet, used so often that Stefik fears we're in danger of subjecting the evolution of the net to the limiting implications of this metaphor. Stefik, along with a host of prescient techno thinkers and doers, examine four richer, more powerful metaphors and their Jungian archetypes that together should expand anyone's thinking about the cyber world... And those metaphors are: digital library (The Keeper of Knowledge), electronic mail (Communicator), electronic marketplace (Trader), and digital world (Adventurer). The summoning of the archetypes in service of Stefik's argument is less silicon psychobabble than it is a compelling way to organize this book around the very real ways in which the net is being used.

CONTRIBUTORS

The I-Way as Publishing and Community Memory
Vannevar Bush, J. C. R. Licklider, Robert E. Kahn, Joshua Lederberg, John Browning, Scott D. N. Cook, Vicky Reich, Mark Weiser, Ranjit Makkuni

The I-Way as a Communications Medium
Lee Sproull, Samer Faraj, Jay Machado, Lynn Conway, Joshua Lederberg.

Selling Goods and Services the I-Way
Thomas Malone, Joanne Yates, Robert Benjamin, Laura Fillmore, Mark Stefik

The I-Way as a Gateway to Experience
Pavel Curtis, Julian Dibbell, Harry Collins, Mark Stefik, John Seeley Brown, William Wulf, Barbara Viglizzo

 

A Forum for Artificial Intelligence

The book review column in Artificial Intelligence has evolved from simple reviews to a forum where reviewers and authors debate in essays, even tutorial presentations, the latest, often competing, theories of human and artificial intelligence. Contemplating Minds brings together a selection of these reviews in a form suitable for the general scientific reader, seminar organizer, or student wanting a critical introduction that synthesizes and compares some of the most important and influential books and ideas to have emerged in AI over the past decade.

Contemplating Minds is divided into four parts, each with a brief introduction, that address the major themes in artificial intelligence, human intelligence, and cognitive science research: Symbolic Models of Mind, Situated Action, Architectures of Interaction, and Memory and Consciousness.

The books being debated include those by such influential authors as Allen Newell (Unified Theories of Cognition), Terry Winograd and F. Flores (Understanding Computers and Cognition: A New Foundation for Design), Herbert Simon (The Sciences of the Artificial, second edition), Lucy Suchman (Plans and Situated Actions: The Problem of Human-Machine Communication), Marvin Minsky (The Society of Mind), Gerald Edelman (Neural Darwinism: The Theory of Neuronal Group Selection, The Remembered Present: A Biological Theory of Consciousness, Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind), and Daniel Dennett (Consciousness Explained). The list of reviewers is equally distinguished.