Even minute increases in a country's growth rate can result in dramatic changes in living standards over just one generation. The benefits of growth, however, may not be shared equally. Some may gain less than others, and a fraction of the population may actually be disadvantaged. Recent economic research has found both positive and negative relationships between growth and inequality across nations. The questions raised by these results include: What is the impact on inequality of policies designed to foster growth? Does inequality by itself facilitate or detract from economic growth, and does it amplify or diminish policy effectiveness?This book provides a forum for economists to examine the theoretical, empirical, and policy issues involved in the relationship between growth and inequality. The aim is to develop a framework for determining the role of public policy in enhancing both growth and equality. The diverse range of topics, examined in both developed and developing countries, includes natural resources, taxation, fertility, redistribution, technological change, transition, labor markets, and education. A theme common to all the essays is the importance of education in reducing inequality and increasing growth.
The determinants of economic growth and development are hotly debated among economists. Financial crises and failed transition experiments have highlighted the fact that functioning institutions are fundamental to the goal of achieving economic growth. The growth literature has seen an abundance of empirical studies on the influence of institutions and the mechanisms by which institutions affect development. This CESifo volume provides a systematic overview of the current scholarship on the impact of institutions on growth.The contributors, all internationally prominent economists, consider theoretical and empirical relationships between institutions and growth. Concepts covered include "appropriate institutions" (the idea that different institutional arrangements are appropriate at different stages of economic development); liberalized credit markets; the influence of institutions on productivity; institutional and regulatory reforms in the OECD; how innovation and entrepreneurship influence growth (including an analysis of patent activity in the United States from 1790 to 1930); the endogeneity of institutions as seen in the recruitment of elites by higher education institutions; the effect of economic development on transitions to democracy; and technology adoption in agriculture.Contributors:Philippe Aghion, Costas Azariadis, Elise S. Brezis, Matteo Cervellati, François Crouzet, David de la Croix, Theo S. Eicher, Piergiuseppe Fortunato, Cecilia García-Peñalosa, Thorvaldur Gylfason, Murat Iyigun, B. Zorina Khan, Giuseppe Nicoletti, Dani Rodrik, Stefano Scarpetta, Kenneth L. Sokoloff, Uwe Sunde, Utku Teksoz, Gylfi Zoega