The New Science Of The Mind
There is a new way of thinking about the mind that does not locate mental processes exclusively "in the head." Some think that this expanded conception of the mind will be the basis of a new science of the mind. In this book, leading philosopher Mark Rowlands investigates the conceptual foundations of this new science of the mind.
Traditional attempts to study the mind are based on the idea that mental processes—perceiving, remembering, thinking, reasoning—exist in brains; they are often described as "software" realized by the "hardware" of the brain. The new way of thinking about the mind has emerged from the confluence of various disciplines in cognitive science ranging from perceptual and developmental psychology to robotics. It emphasizes the ways in which mental processes are embodied (partly made up of extra-neural bodily structures and processes), embedded (designed to function in tandem with the environment), enacted (constituted in part by action), and extended (located in the environment).
The new way of thinking about the mind, Rowlands writes, is actually an old way of thinking that has taken on new form. Rowlands describes a conception of mind that had its clearest expression in phenomenology—in the work of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, and Merleau-Ponty. He builds on these views, clarifies and renders consistent the ideas of embodied, embedded, enacted, and extended mind, and develops a unified philosophical treatment of the novel conception of the mind that underlies the new science of the mind.
About the Author
Mark Rowlands is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Miami. He is the author of The Body in Mind: Understanding Cognitive Processes, Body Language: Representation in Action (MIT Press, 2006), The Philosopher and the Wolf, and other books.
Table of Contents
- The New Science of the Mind
- The New Science of the Mind
- From Extended Mind to Embodied Phenomenology
- Mark Rowlands
- A Bradford Book
- The MIT Press
- Cambridge, Massachusetts
- London, England
- © 2010
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from the publisher.
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- This book was set in Stone Sans and Stone Serif by Toppan Best-set Premedia Limited. Printed and bound in the United States of America.
- Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
- Rowlands, Mark.
- The new science of the mind : from extended mind to embodied phenomenology / Mark Rowlands.
- p. cm.
- “A Bradford book.”
- Includes bibliographical references and index.
- ISBN 978-0-262-01455-7 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Cognitive science. I. Title.
- [DNLM: 1. Mental Processes. 2. Philosophy, Medical. BF 441 R883n 2010]
- BF311.R685 2010
- 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
- For Emma
- Preface and Acknowledgments ix
- 1 Expanding the Mind 1
- 2 Non-Cartesian Cognitive Science 25
- 3 The Mind Embodied, Embedded, Enacted, and Extended 51
- 4 Objections to the Mind Amalgamated 85
- 5 The Mark of the Cognitive 107
- 6 The Problem of Ownership 135
- 7 Intentionality as Revealing Activity 163
- 8 The Mind Amalgamated 189
- Notes 219
- References 229
- Index 239
"In The New Science of the Mind, Mark Rowlands sets out an exciting combination of embodied and extended cognition which he calls the amalgamated mind. Rowlands convincingly argues that the new science of the mind will concern itself with explaining mental processes as amalgamations of neural, bodily, and environmental processes. This book stakes out important new territory and is sure to have a major impact on the future of the field."
Richard Menary, The University of Wollongong
"Mark Rowlands insightfully draws from resources in both early analytic philosophy and phenomenology to defend recent conceptions of embodied and extended cognition. He presents convincing arguments to show that, at its core, intentionality involves a transcendental disclosure of the world, and then remarkably shows that the transcendental is characteristic of a mind that is an amalgamation of brain, body, and environment. He thus lays out a brilliant strategy to defeat all of the neurocentric naysayers with respect to the extendedor, in Rowland's terms, the amalgamatedmind."
Shaun Gallagher, Professor of Philosophy and Cognitive Sciences, University of Central Florida and University of Hertfordshire
"Those who ask whether mental processes can extend beyond the brain and into the world may seem to be asking, 'Where is my mind?' Mark Rowlands instead replaces questions about the location of cognition with a process-based vision of the mind as a complex set of activities distributed across brain, body, and world. His integrative and original book demonstrates that the cognitive sciences already treat mental processes as amalgamations of disparate neural, bodily, and environmental resources. It brings a new level of precision to the case for the extended mind."
John Sutton, Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science, Macquarie University