Mark Graham

Mark Graham is Professor of Internet Geography at the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford the editor (with William H. Dutton) of Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication Are Changing Our Lives.

  • Digital Entrepreneurship in Africa

    Digital Entrepreneurship in Africa

    How a Continent Is Escaping Silicon Valley's Long Shadow

    Nicolas Friederici, Michel Wahome, and Mark Graham

    The hope and hype about African digital entrepreneurship, contrasted with the reality on the ground in local ecosystems.

    The open access edition of this book was made possible by generous funding from Arcadia – a charitable fund of Lisbet Rausing and by Knowledge Unlatched.

    In recent years, Africa has seen a digital entrepreneurship boom, with hundreds of millions of dollars poured into tech cities, entrepreneurship trainings, coworking spaces, innovation prizes, and investment funds. Politicians and technologists have offered Silicon Valley–influenced narratives of boundless opportunity and exponential growth, in which internet-enabled entrepreneurship allows Africa to “leapfrog” developmental stages to take a leading role in the digital revolution. This book contrasts these aspirations with empirical research about what is actually happening on the ground. The authors find that although the digital revolution has empowered local entrepreneurs, it does not untether local economies from the continent's structural legacies.

    Drawing on a five-year research project, the authors show how entrepreneurs creatively and productively adapt digital technologies to local markets rather than dreaming of global dominance, achieving sustainable businesses by scaling based on relationships and customizing digital platform business models for African infrastructure challenge. The authors examine African entrepreneurial ecosystems; show that African digital entrepreneurs have begun to form a new professional class, becoming part of a relatively exclusive cultural and economic elite; and discuss the impact of Silicon Valley's mythologies and expectations. Finally, they consider the implications of their findings and offer recommendations to policymakers and others.

    • Paperback $40.00 £32.00
  • Digital Economies at Global Margins

    Digital Economies at Global Margins

    Mark Graham

    Investigations of what increasing digital connectivity and the digitalization of the economy mean for people and places at the world's economic margins.

    Within the last decade, more than one billion people became new Internet users. Once, digital connectivity was confined to economically prosperous parts of the world; now Internet users make up a majority of the world's population. In this book, contributors from a range of disciplines and locations investigate the impact of increased digital connectivity on people and places at the world's economic margins. Does the advent of a digitalized economy mean that those in economic peripheries can transcend spatial, organizational, social, and political constraints—or do digital tools and techniques tend to reinforce existing inequalities? The contributors present a diverse set of case studies, reporting on digitalization in countries ranging from Chile to Kenya to the Philippines, and develop a broad range of theoretical positions. They consider, among other things, data-driven disintermediation, women's economic empowerment and gendered power relations, digital humanitarianism and philanthropic capitalism, the spread of innovation hubs, and two cases of the reversal of core and periphery in digital innovation.

    Contributors Niels Beerepoot, Ryan Burns, Jenna Burrell, Julie Yujie Chen, Peter Dannenberg, Uwe Deichmann, Jonathan Donner, Christopher Foster, Mark Graham, Nicolas Friederici, Hernan Galperin, Catrihel Greppi, Anita Gurumurthy, Isis Hjorth, Lilly Irani, Molly Jackman, Calestous Juma, Dorothea Kleine, Madlen Krone, Vili Lehdonvirta, Chris Locke, Silvia Masiero, Hannah McCarrick,Deepak K. Mishra, Bitange Ndemo, Jorien Oprins, Elisa Oreglia, Stefan Ouma, Robert Pepper, Jack Linchuan Qiu, Julian Stenmanns, Tim Unwin, Julia Verne, Timothy Waema

    • Paperback $40.00 £32.00

Contributor

  • Making Open Development Inclusive

    Making Open Development Inclusive

    Lessons from IDRC Research

    Matthew L. Smith and Ruhiya Kristine Seward

    Drawing on ten years of empirical work and research, analyses of how open development has played out in practice.

    The open access edition of this book was made possible by generous funding from Knowledge Unlatched.

    A decade ago, a significant trend toward openness emerged in international development. “Open development” can describe initiatives as disparate as open government, open health data, open science, open education, and open innovation. The theory was that open systems related to data, science, and innovation would enable more inclusive processes of human development. This volume, drawing on ten years of empirical work and research, analyzes how open development has played out in practice

    Focusing on development practices in the Global South, the contributors explore the crucial questions of who is allowed to participate when an initiative is “open” and who benefits—or not—from them, finding that processes characterized as open can sometimes be exclusionary in their implementation. Examining a wide range of cases, they consider the governance of open development ecosystems and the implementation of a variety of applications, including open educational resources, collaborative science, and the uses of crowdsourcing.

    Contributors

    Denisse Albornoz, Chris Armstrong, Savita Bailur, Roxana Barrantes, Carla Bonina, Michael Cañares, Leslie Chan, Laura Czerniewicz, Jeremy de Beer, Stefano De Sabbata, Shirin Elahi, Alison Gillwald, Mark Graham, Rebecca Hillyer, Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams, Dick Kawooya, Erika Kramer-Mbula, Paulo Matos, Caroline Ncube, Chidi Oguamanam, Angela Okune, Alejandro Posada, Nagla Rizk, Isaac Rutenberg, Tobias Schonwetter, Fabrizio Scrollini, Ruhiya Kristine Seward, Raed Sharif, Matthew Smith, William Randall Spence, Henry Trotter, François van Schalkwyk, Sonal Zavaeri

    • Paperback $55.00 £45.00
  • Open Development

    Open Development

    Networked Innovations in International Development

    Matthew L. Smith and Katherine M. A. Reilly

    Experts explore current theory and practice in the application of digitally enabled open networked social models to international development.

    The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Open development harnesses this power, to create new organizational forms and improve people's lives; it is not only an agenda for research and practice but also a statement about how to approach international development. In this volume, experts explore a variety of applications of openness, addressing challenges as well as opportunities.

    Open development requires new theoretical tools that focus on real world problems, consider a variety of solutions, and recognize the complexity of local contexts. After exploring the new theoretical terrain, the book describes a range of cases in which open models address such specific development issues as biotechnology research, improving education, and access to scholarly publications. Contributors then examine tensions between open models and existing structures, including struggles over privacy, intellectual property, and implementation. Finally, contributors offer broader conceptual perspectives, considering processes of social construction, knowledge management, and the role of individual intent in the development and outcomes of social models.

    Contributors Carla Bonina, Ineke Buskens, Leslie Chan, Abdallah Daar, Jeremy de Beer, Mark Graham, Eve Gray, Anita Gurumurthy, Havard Haarstad, Blane Harvey, Myra Khan, Melissa Loudon, Aaron K. Martin, Hassan Masum, Chidi Oguamanam, Katherine M. A. Reilly, Ulrike Rivett, Karl Schroeder, Parminder Jeet Singh, Matthew L. Smith, Marshall S. Smith

    Copublished with the International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC)

    • Paperback $25.00 £20.00